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Medium 9781609940072

Chapter 4: Norming

George, Bill Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

NEXT, WE EXAMINE THE PROCESS OF CREATING NORMS that enable your group to work together effectively and permit your members to achieve their goals. Norms include the rules, values, behaviors, work methods, and taboos that describe how a group functions.

Every group, family, marriage, and partnership has a set of norms. Some of these are explicit; others are unstated but detectable through observation and reflection. Not all of them are positive. Some poor behaviors in families, groups, and organizations can become normative and thus go unchallenged.

We believe it is important that your new group set explicit norms for how the group will operate. As your group decides questions of gender, meeting schedule and location, number of members, and mode of leadership, you are establishing the initial norms for your group. Some norms may change early in the group’s life as the group either concurs with these initial ideas or proposes alternatives. As the group settles into a routine, more important norms will emerge.

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Medium 9781626562295

12 Report Results and Develop Plans for Sustaining Results

Robinson, Dana Gaines Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Sustain: To cause or be prolonged for an extended period or without interruption.

—Oxford Dictionary, American English

You have completed a performance consulting initiative and have findings for each of the five levels you measured. Now you and your clients have evidence that indicates the degree of success obtained from your collective efforts. After all the investment that has been made in the initiative, the worst course of action is to do nothing. Communicating results is as important as achieving results. Achieving results without communicating them is like painting a beautiful mountain scene but never putting the painting on display. Others will not be able to enjoy the beauty of the painting. Likewise in organizations, distrust grows when people are asked for their input, but never learn what results were achieved. Communicating results, both the good and not-so-good, is a necessity.

When meeting with clients to discuss results for the first time, we strongly encourage that you meet with your clients face-to-face or by videoconference—any medium where you can talk and see each other. The goal is to engage your clients in a discussion regarding the results and the implications for any required future actions. One-way communication, which occurs when a report is sent with your conclusions and recommendations, does not provide for a collaborative, facilitated conversation. You want to discuss the findings with your clients, not just report the findings.

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Medium 9781574412802

Shell Pink Clock

Amy M. Clark University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781780643236

6 Antifungal Substances from Wild Plants for Development of Natural Fungicides

Ganesan, S.; Vadivel, K.; Jayaraman, J. CABI PDF


Antifungal Substances from

Wild Plants for Development of

Natural Fungicides

J.C. Pretorius* and E. Van Der Watt

Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State,

Bloemfontein, South Africa

6.1 Introduction

Plant pathogenic fungi is a menace infecting almost all groups of eukaryotic organisms ranging from cellular amoebae, protozoa, algae to larger plant groups such as liverworts, mosses, ferns and higher plants. These fungi are best known for their extensive damage to plants, especially cultivated plants. In world crop production, preharvest losses due to fungal diseases are estimated at 12% in developing countries

(Lee et al., 2001). Synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant pathogens by crop producers for many decades to their benefit (Pretorius and Van der Watt, 2011). However, this does not mean that the use of synthetic fungicides is desirable in all cases and under all circumstances. Hence, alternative methods to combat plant diseases are still urgently needed. Moreover, farmers and scientists alike are seeking less hazardous, and hopefully cheaper, alternatives to conventional synthetic chemicals (Karavaev et al., 2002).

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Medium 9781780640921


Biddle, A.J. CABI PDF




Nitrogen is a major element in crop nutrition and in the absence of nitrogen, crop growth is severely affected as a result of a general chlorosis and reduction in photosynthetic ability. In most agricultural systems, nitrogen (N) is applied in a readily available form, either as nitrate in a chemical fertilizer or as manure or compost, where microbial breakdown can release soluble forms of nitrate that are then taken up by the growing crop. In large-scale commercial agriculture, most nitrogen is applied as a fertilizer produced by a chemical process (the

Haber–Bosch process) that converts nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia using high quantities of energy, or from non-renewable mined sources of minerals. In whichever production method is used, there is a high economic cost involved. An additional problem occurs with the use of applied fertilizers when excess chemical is leached out of the soil by rainfall or irrigation and is then able to enter water courses and catchments.

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